A porous fibre-reinforced composite implant with S53P4 bioactive glass granule coating was tested as a bone reconstruction material in the critical size defects in rabbit calvarial bones. The core of the implant consisted of a sandwich structure, i.e. woven E-glass fibre fabric between two non-woven E-glass fibre tissues imprenated with non-resorbable resin. The implants were fixed with titanium pins. Empty defects served as a control group. The follow-up times were 4 and 12 weeks. At 4 weeks, fibrous connective tissue growth into the pores of the implant and minimal inflammatory reaction was observed.
New bone growth from defect margins and formation of small islands of woven bone surrounded by fibrous connective tissue were detected also. At 12 weeks, more bony islands were observed and a part of newly formed bone had matured to lamellar bone. The foreign-body inflammatory reaction was moderate. Empty control defects were healed by fibrous connective tissue. No damage to brain morphology was observed.